Preface xiii The clinical importance of pain from musculoskeletal structures is obvi- ous. Musculoskeletal pain is a diagnostic and therapeutic problem, and further insights into the peripheral and central neurobiological mecha- nisms are needed to improve diagnosis, therapy, and the implementation of mechanism-based treatment regimes. It has become increasingly evi- dent that muscle hyperalgesia, referred pain, referred hyperalgesia, and widespread hyperalgesia play an important role in chronic musculoskel- etal pain. Besides the sensory consequences of musculoskeletal pain, the motor control systems are also affected, changing the drive to the muscles and the related biomechanics. This book integrates the research findings within the field of mus- culoskeletal pain into a comprehensive publication that will update the reader on novel mechanisms involved in the sensory and motor charac- teristics of such pain. The authors attempt to translate findings from basic animal studies, and from human experimental pain studies, into potential clinical mechanisms. The historical perspective of muscle pain investigations is exten- sive. Articular and muscular forms of rheumatism had been differentiated by the 18th century. Muscular rheumatism was defined as pain and stiff- ness in muscle and soft tissue. Other authors note the use of alternative terms: Muskelschwiele (muscle callus defined in 1843), “muscular rheu- matism” (1900), fibrositis (1915), Myogelose (muscle gelling 1919), Mus- kelhärten (muscle hardenings 1925), myalgia (1942), myogelosis (1942), nonarticular rheumatism (1951), and myofascial pain (1952) (Reyn- olds MD. The development of the concept of fibrositis. J Hist Med Al- lied Sci 1983 38:5–35 Simons DG. Muscular pain syndromes. In: Fricton JR, Awad E, editors. Myofascial pain and fibromyalgia. New York: Raven Press 1990, pp 1–41). In the 1930s, Lewis and Kellgren pioneered the experimental approach to the study of muscle hyperalgesia and referred pain in humans and introduced the concept of experimentally induced muscle pain. Some of the first systematic recordings from thin-caliber muscle afferent fibers in animals were made in the early 1960s by Pain- tal (J Physiol 1960 152:250–270) and Iggo (J Physiol 1961 155:52–53),
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